The animals were kept in groups on litter and had free access to water. The experiments were performed according to the Guidance for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals [ 17 ]. Nineteen juvenile female pigs German Landrace , weighing on average Before the experiments began, the health status of each animal was assessed by a veterinarian. In the mornings, intramuscular i. Thereafter, anesthesia induction with approximately 2. Then, a urinary catheter was inserted by natural route. During the study, the animals were placed in the supine position on a heated blanket to maintain normothermic body temperature.
The depth of anesthesia was controlled by blood pressure and heart rate according to human clinical standards. Moreover, a balanced crystalloid solution Ringer; 0. Breathing rate was adjusted to maintain a partial pressure of carbon dioxide p a CO 2 of 35—45 mmHg. After placing the femoral arterial and the central venous catheter using the Seldinger technique as well as the pulmonary artery catheter for cardiac output measurements, the necessary preparations were completed.
All animals were connected to a Datex monitor Datex AS3 Monitoring System, Datex-Ohmeda for continuous vital data assessment hemodynamic parameters and respiratory parameters, including the calculated Horowitz index, defined as arterial oxygen pressure P a O 2 divided by F i O 2.
All blood gas measurements were analyzed by a blood gas analyzer ABL blood gas analyzer, Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark. After initial preparations, baseline measurements were performed. Thereafter, F i O 2 was set to 1. When P a O 2 was below mmHg one hour after the last lavage in general, after three hours of repeated lavages , ARDS was defined to be established. In the CO group, all animals were ventilated with a F i O 2 of 1.
In all groups, ventilation parameters, hemodynamic measurements, blood gas analysis and EIT recordings were collected at baseline measurement and hourly up to eight hours after establishment of ARDS. In the CO group, measurements were performed hourly in accordance with both experimental groups. For EIT monitoring, a electrode belt was fastened around the thorax at the 5 th intercostal space. The belt was connected to the PulmoVista Draeger Medical, Luebeck, Germany , and an EIT sequence of two minutes was recorded with a sampling rate of 50 Hz at each predefined time point at baseline measurement and hourly after establishment of ARDS.
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For offline analysis, Data Review 5. For reconstruction, we chose a ROI-threshold of 0. EIT images were reconstructed after selecting individual sequences. Hereafter, EIT images were post-processed manually if artefacts in the reconstructed lung were visible. The GI index was first described by Zhao et al. It represents heterogeneity of the lung. The higher the value, the worse the disorder in ventilation distribution.
The RVD index represents the inhomogeneity of the lung and is well correlated with the amount of tidal recruitment raised by computed tomography. Not normally distribution was confirmed using the Shapiro-Wilk test.
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Therefore, median values and interquartile ranges were presented. Due to the fact, that there are four time points, we performed a multiple comparison analysis according to a Bonferroni correction for RVD index and GI index in addition. In total, nineteen animals were examined in this study. Five animals served as controls, seven animals were studied in the LAV group, and seven animals were studied in the LPS group. The baseline data of all animals showed no differences except for systolic pulmonary arterial pressure SPAP.
Gas exchange and respiratory mechanics differed significantly compared to the CO group. Cardiac output did not differ in both experimental groups compared to CO group at any time Tables 2 — 4.
So far, no sufficient differences between the two experimental ARDS models were observable. Furthermore, a more differentiated volume therapy was initiated in the LPS group. Five of seven LPS animals needed between and ml additional volume whereas only one LAV animal needed ml additional volume to maintain blood pressure.
Before induction of ARDS, there were no differences in the baseline values of gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics and EIT-derived indices between the groups Table 1. It must be noted, however, that no statistically difference was observable in both target parameters after Bonferroni correction. Additionally, the Horowitz index showed an obvious conspicuousness Fig 1. In this study, two models of experimental ARDS in pigs, namely the lavage and the endotoxin models, were analyzed and compared with regard to EIT-derived parameters.
Both models showed reliable EIT measurements, but the influences on the EIT parameters were quite different pointing out that the underlying pathophysiology affects the findings. The key result was that the GI index, which represents the disorder in ventilation distribution, and the RVD index, which is a measure for inhomogeneity as well, were higher in the LAV group initially.
However, this effect disappeared during the study. It is particularly noteworthy that after Bonferroni correction no statistical significance was demonstrated. ARDS pathogenesis and pathophysiology is complex [ 20 ].
In patients, sepsis and pneumonia are the most common factor for the development of an acute lung injury [ 21 ], which can be imitated in animal studies by the intravenous injection or intratracheal application of LPS. Here, the mechanism of lung injury takes place in two ways: First, a direct effect leading to damage of the endothelial cells and second, a systemic inflammatory response.
The endotoxin model is accompanied by hemodynamic instability [ 5 , 22 , 23 ]. In contrast, the well-established lavage model is characterized by surfactant depletion, which leads to an increase in alveolar surface tension. As a result, atelectasis and edema frequently occur, leading to impaired gas exchange [ 5 , 24 ]. In particular, the lavage model is not able to mimic the inflammatory aspect and severe epithelial injury of human ARDS. Additionally, this model tends to instability with consecutive improved gas exchange [ 5 , 7 ].
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Furthermore, saline solution may remain in the lungs after repetitive lavages. EIT is a bedside-available tool that enables continuous monitoring and evaluation of ventilation. Because of a huge amount of complex data, EIT-derived indices were introduced to analyze, structure and interpret these data. Two indices, which were studied in various experimental and clinical settings, are the GI index and the RVD index. The GI index was introduced by Zhao et al.
Initially, Zhao et al. Overall, the GI index focuses on spatial heterogeneity within the lung. Consequently, this parameter is a measure for ventilation inhomogeneity [ 12 , 28 ]. Because of this, I am leaving the pigs in there longer then I normally would, so they provide maximum disturbance. Additionally, I am moving the piggies across the slope on contour, and their excavation activities are creating mini swales for us.
They tend to push everything down hill, so the bottom boundary wire ends up being the new pig-swale line. So here I am way up in Canada, searching high and low for effective portable hog watering systems so I can do pastured pigs, and what do I find when checking in on one of my favourite permaculture blogs? A Canadian hog watering system that looks perfect. LOL…thank you. But a single strand… Mmmm, there-in lies the next challenge. Let us know how you go with a single strand.
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Hi Milkwood. I got 2 pigs after working at Boxgum grazing for a few months. Their pigs were so well behaved. Ours are not. They are nearly 6 months but not yet ready to go to the chop. We have them in the chicken netting as they consistantly got out of the 2 strand we had on the solar energiser. We need the netting back for the chickens. We changed to the mains to give them a bigger shock. They still go though within 24 hours. We have a reading of 9 on the meter.
Any suggestions? Milkwood permaculture blog.
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Thank you Before we can sign you up to the Milkwood Newsletter we need a little more information. First Last. Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe. The Milkwood Newsletter Milkwood. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Pigs in bed Yay Floyd, and pigs Pigs all trained up, respectful, and out into their first patch of pasture Dinnertime Following their training week, Floyd fenced off a bigger area and set the 6 piglets up with two strand electric all around.
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